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Immunity: Natural and Acquired

Mounting an Immune Response

Infections are the most common cause of human disease. They range from the common cold to debilitating conditions like chronic hepatitis to life-threatening diseases such as AIDS. Disease-causing microbes (pathogens) attempting to get into the body must first move past the body’s external armor, usually the skin or cells lining the body’s internal passageways.


When challenged by a virus or other microbe, the immune system has many weapons to choose, including lymphokines, T cells, antibodies, B cells, killer cells, complements, and macrophages.
When challenged by a virus or other microbe, the immune system has many weapons to choose. View credit information. View the illustration showing potential immune system responses.

The skin provides an imposing barrier to invading microbes. It is generally penetrable only through cuts or tiny abrasions. The digestive and respiratory tracts—both portals of entry for a number of microbes—also have their own levels of protection. Microbes entering the nose often cause the nasal surfaces to secrete more protective mucus, and attempts to enter the nose or lungs can trigger a sneeze or cough reflex to force microbial invaders out of the respiratory passageways. The stomach contains a strong acid that destroys many pathogens that are swallowed with food.

If microbes survive the body’s front-line defenses, they still have to find a way through the walls of the digestive, respiratory, or urogenital passageways to the underlying cells. These passageways are lined with tightly packed epithelial cells covered in a layer of mucus, effectively blocking the transport of many pathogens into deeper cell layers.


Antibodies are triggered when a B cell encounters its matching antigen; the B cell takes in the antigen and digests it; then it displays antigen fragments bound to its own distinctive MHC molecules. The combination of antigen fragment and MHC molecule attracts the help of a mature, matching T cell. Lymphokines secreted by the T cell allow the B cell to multiply and mature into antibody-producing plasma cells. Released into the bloodstream, antibodies lock onto matching antigens. These antigen-antibody complexes are soon eliminated, either by the complement cascade or by the liver and the spleen.
B cells are triggered to mature into plasma cells that produce a specific kind of antibody when the B cell encounters a specific antigen. View credit information. View an illustration of the B cell response process.

Mucosal surfaces also secrete a special class of antibody called IgA, which in many cases is the first type of antibody to encounter an invading microbe. Underneath the epithelial layer a variety of immune cells, including macrophages, B cells, and T cells, lie in wait for any microbe that might bypass the barriers at the surface.

Next, invaders must escape a series of general defenses of the innate immune system, which are ready to attack without regard for specific antigen markers. These include patrolling phagocytes, natural killer T cells, and complement.

Microbes cross the general barriers then confront specific weapons of the adaptive immune system tailored just for them. These specific weapons, which include both antibodies and T cells, are equipped with singular receptor structures that allow them to recognize and interact with their designated targets.

Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites

The most common disease-causing microbes are bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Each uses a different tactic to infect a person, and, therefore, each is thwarted by different components of the immune system.


T cells are mobilized when they encounter a cell such as a macrophage or a B cell that has digested an antigen and is displaying antigen fragments bound to its MHC molecules. Lymphokines help the T cell to mature. The T cell, alerted and activated, secretes lymphokines. Some lymphokines attract immune cells—fresh macrophages, granulocytes, and other lymphocytes—to the site of infection. Yet other lymphokines direct the recruits once they arrive on the scene. Some lymphokines spur the growth of more T cells. Some T cells become killer cells and track down body cells infected by viruses.
T cells become active through a series of steps and then activate other immune cells by secreting lymphokines. View credit information. View an illustration of the T cell response process.

Most bacteria live in the spaces between cells and are readily attacked by antibodies. When antibodies attach to a bacterium, they send signals to complement proteins and phagocytic cells to destroy the bound microbes. Some bacteria are eaten directly by phagocytes, which signal to certain T cells to join the attack.

All viruses, plus a few types of bacteria and parasites, must enter cells of the body to survive, requiring a different kind of immune defense. Infected cells use their major histocompatibility complex molecules to put pieces of the invading microbes on their surfaces, flagging down cytotoxic T lymphocytes to destroy the infected cells. Antibodies also can assist in the immune response by attaching to and clearing viruses before they have a chance to enter cells.

Parasites live either inside or outside cells. Intracellular parasites such as the organism that causes malaria can trigger T cell responses. Extracellular parasites are often much larger than bacteria or viruses and require a much broader immune attack. Parasitic infections often trigger an inflammatory response in which eosinophils, basophils, and other specialized granule-containing cells rush to the scene and release their stores of toxic chemicals in an attempt to destroy the invaders. Antibodies also play a role in this attack, attracting the granule-filled cells to the site of infection.

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Last reviewed: October 2016

Last syndicated: May 11, 2017
This content is brought to you by: National Institute of Allergy Infectious Diseases